EPA Method 410.1

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EPA Method 410.1:
Chemical Oxygen Demand by Titrimetry. Official Name: Chemical Oxygen Demand (Titrimetric, Mid-Level)

Summary:
Organic and oxidizable substances in the sample are oxidized by potassium dichromate in 50% sulfuric acid solution at reflux temperature. Silver sulfate is used as a catalyst and mercuric sulfate is added to remove chloride interference. The excess dichromate is titrated with standard ferrous ammonium sulfate using orthophenanthroline ferrous complex as an indicator.

Scope:
This method determines chemical oxygen demand; the quantity of oxygen required to oxidize organic matter in a waste sample.

Citation:
Methods for the Chemical Analysis of Water and Wastes (MCAWW) (EPA/600/4-79/020)

Interferences:
(A) Contamination: Trace organics from glassware or the atmosphere can cause gross positive error. Run blanks through glassware to eliminate trace organics.(B) Volatiles: Volatile organics may be lost when the temperature rises during the addition of sulfuric acid. To minimize loss, cool the sample flask during the addition of sulfuric acid.(C) Chlorides: Chlorides are quantitatively oxidized by dichromate and represent a positive interference. Mercuric sulfate is added to the digestion flask to complex chlorides and eliminate the interference.

QC Requirements:
None.

Maximum Holding Time:
28 Days (MCAWW, Table 1).

Media:
WATER

Subcategory:
Organic

Concentration:
50 mg/L or higher.

Sample Prep:
None.

Precision:
Precision and accuracy values were calculated using interlaboratory data from EPA-managed Water Pollution (WP) performance evaluation studies.

Detection:
None.

Revision Number:
Issued 1971; Editorial Revision 1978