EPA Method 9000

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EPA Method 9000:
DETERMINATION OF WATER IN WASTE MATERIALS BY KARL FISCHER TITRATION

Summary:
This method uses the Karl Fischer titration technique to quantify the water content of materials from 1 ppm to nearly 100%. Coulometric titration is used for direct analysis of samples with water contents between 1 ppm and 5%, while volumetric titration is more suitable for direct analysis of higher levels (100 ppm to 100%). With proper sample dilution, the range of the coulometric technique can also be extended to 100% water. This method presents both coulometric and volumetric procedures.

Scope:
In the volumetric procedure, the sample (or an extract of it) is added to a Karl Fischer solvent consisting of sulfur dioxide and an amine dissolved in anhydrous methanol. This solution is titrated with an anhydrous solvent containing iodine. The iodine titrant is first standardized by titrating a known amount of water.